Impact and ROI of VR/AR in Training II

You asked the questions, and here are the answers.

Our Training Committee held a very successful webinar on “The Impact and ROI of VR/AR in Training” on 16th January 2019.

You can watch the Webinar recording here

You can also watch the solution demos here

It proved a popular event, with over 300 people registering to watch four enlightening presentations on very different Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality training applications. During the lively question-and-answer session it became clear that the number of great questions was larger than the time available to answer them all! This post allows the presenters to respond the questions that couldn’t be answered during the webinar.

Presenter 1 : David Trainor, Sentireal

Presentation Theme

David presented the “AppUccino” software, which delivers AR experiences for special-needs trainees to learn how to be a barista and work successfully in a commercial coffee shop. AppUccino directs trainees through the process of making americano, espresso, latte and cappuccino drinks. It generates AR overlays on the physical coffee-making equipment, including the industrial coffee machine itself, the separate coffee bean grinder and the separate water heater. A short video of part of the AppUccino AR experience can be seen here. Trainee performance measurements are taken as they prepare the drink using AppUccino and these measurements are uploaded to a cloud application, which analyzes them and presents training progress information to authorized training managers. An initial pilot with AppUccino indicated that trainees retained twice the amount of information and developed their skills 50% faster using AppUccino.

Webinar Questions for David Trainor

You said it took ~9 months of definition and dev, how many people were working on your team in which roles in order to accomplish this?

We used one media/content creator and one software developer. The work was carried out over the course of 9 months, but neither the content creation nor the software development role was full-time.

How were the analyses done? Observation? Performance against criteria on task?

The analyses were done based on (i) time taken for the trainee to perform certain tasks (ii) measurements of how accurately the trainee performed certain tasks and (iii) estimates of where the trainee’s attention and focus was at specific points in the procedure.

How many users has Appuccino had? What has been the impact? In how many months after development did you achieve that impact?

We’ve just completed an initial evaluation/pilot involving 15-20 trainees within a coffee shop managed by a partner training organization. At some point in February 2019 we intend to expand this to all barista trainees within that training organization.

How long did it take to create AR content for training?

The 3D models for the AR overlays were completed in approximately 1 week. The media is actually quite simple. Strong, simple content proved to be the best way to present the required information to special needs trainees who are affected by autism, Downs Syndrome or general learning difficulties. However we needed to spend much more time – about 4 months – on the instructional design and the directions, animations and transitions within the AR scenarios.

How did you already go about gathering data on ROI prior to the development (and also launch) of the app?

The data was gathered from a pilot study at one location. This was after the app was developed but before it was publicly released.

Very exciting project! Curious why you selected that small, unique demographic to start? Unique requirements? Expect to scale up to other populations?

We picked barista training as it’s an area where there is expected to be a lack of qualified employees in the future. In the UK, where I’m from, it is estimated that there is a shortfall of 40000 trained baristas. We selected special-needs barista trainees because there is a high degree of underemployment in that group and if we can create a good intuitive solution for special-needs trainees then it should scale up well to other groups and other types of catering or hospitality training applications.

Are these analytics published somewhere?

Not yet – the small pilot study that we’ve carried out gave us some indications on the training improvements and return on investment from AppUccino but we’re starting a larger evaluation in February 2019, when more trainees start to use the app at our partner training organization. We plan to publish the detailed outputs from this larger study.

Presenter 2 : Jeff Meador, Portico

Presentation Theme

Jeff presented Portico’s Diversity and Inclusion VR Seminar, which provides learners the opportunity to practice and master their skills with inclusive language. This program was designed to complement traditional classroom learning by preparing learners with practical applications of the skills discussed during classroom sessions. With Portico’s software, learners speak directly to AI-powered digital avatars and engage in simulated conversations that put their skills to test. Learners also get real-time feedback on their performance through a virtual trainer, who uses AI to guide users towards better language choices.

Webinar Questions for Jeff Meador

How did you factor in orientation to the VR experience to overcome novelty or unfamiliarity with the technology to get straight to the experience?
We didn’t want to rely on the learner having any previous experience with VR. We give users time to look around and explore prior to beginning the scenario. This gives them a chance to understand the parameters and boundaries of the exercise. We also engage in some light chit-chat (“how’s the weather” sort of stuff) to let the learner know that they are expected to talk and that the AI is listening and will respond.

Do you need a quiet room?

A quiet room certainly helps. Current speech-to-text technology is very strong, but having a quiet place for the training is very helpful. It also helps the learner concentrate on the task at hand.

Is Portico looking at including body language (proximity to client gestures, etc.)?

Yes; we’ve done some preliminary work with this and have set some behaviors that change based on the learner’s position and/ or focal point during the training.

How is the real time interaction happening? is it a sort of multiplayer training and a mentor is interacting with you? or the AI is giving you feedback?

Everything within our scenarios is driven by AI, including the feedback. Our goal is to have these role playing experiences run without the need for actors or facilitators.

Presenter 3 : Marlo Brooke, AVATAR Partners

Marlo presented a Mixed Reality Training System for aircraft and aircraft subsystem maintenance. Primarily an Augmented Reality / Mixed Reality solution, this high-fidelity, industrial-grade maintenance training system scales from a tabletop model design, to a full-sized aircraft, allowing the maintainer to train on the job, hands free, at the point of need, without any jitter or drift. The system utilizes object tracking (as opposed to stickers or markers) to ensure highly accurate lock on target, even as the user moves around the aircraft. It also  integrates to any backend system to both retrieve and record/send information about the maintenance task. It supports collaborative tasks and remote assistance.

Webinar Questions for Marlo Brooke

How did you come up with your pricing for your offerings?

Pricing is based on the specific requirement of the customer. AVATAR Partners can develop the application in its entirety, and/or the customer can purchase SimplifyXR to build/extend all or some of the functionality. Furthermore, because we use open source products such as Unity, the customer does not need to purchase SimplifyXR to extend any AVATAR Partners built XR solutions.

Is SimplifyXR proprietary to you or is it 3rd party?

SimplifyXR is is developed by AVATAR Partners using open source development tools, and can integrate to any backend system through APIs. It is licensed and sold through AVATAR Partners and its certified resellers. SimplifyXR is not required to extend any AVATAR Partner XR applications.

Could you please clarify how 97% reduction was calculated? Does it mean that instead of 100 hours of training without glasses only 3 hours with glasses are required?

You are correct. The training task was calculated based on the current training method for that particular wire failure, which involved an experienced maintainer gathering information from 3 different source materials (ETM, Wire Illuminator, and 2D schematics) to trace and identify the wire failure. The current training method is documented as taking 4 hours on average. The AR training experience is 7 minutes in duration, which is a 97% reduction in time to train.

Marlo, you said you have offices around the country.  I didn’t hear if Portico has the same, but do either of your companies look to establish satellite offices in more remote locations? If so, what type of environments do you look for? Developed workforce, local colleges, etc?

AVATAR Partners has regional offices in Huntington Beach CA, Arlington (Crystal City) VA, Virginia Beach VA, and Patuxent River MD, with personnel working in 8 different states within the USA. AVATAR has teaming partners with offices in Atlanta GA, Orlando FL, San DIego CA, Dayton OH, and Fort Worth, TX. We are expanding based on a variety of factors including the locations of teaming partners, certified resellers, and universities both within the USA and Allied Nations.

Marlo, how did you measure those analytics?

The performance metrics were derived from test results by AVATAR Partners based on the comparison of the current methodology versus the use of XR. These tests included accuracy,  time to train, and time to complete the task. Cost savings were derived based on an assumed reduction of errors based on increased accuracy, and will vary depending on the application and cost of parts. We also discussed other studies such as the Boeing/Iowa State Study on wing assembly (Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2014).

I’m not familiar with SimplifyXR — can you describe what that is and whether that is proprietary to AVATAR?

SimplifyXR is a software product developed by AVATAR Partners that allows non-programmers to develop their own Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, and Virtual Reality experiences. It also speeds development time by tenfold by using a user-friendly interface. The product also evaluates the user’s desired XR application and notifies the user whether or not the application is well suited for XR, or if a different training media (e.g. video training) would be more effective. SimplifyXR is owned and licensed by AVATAR Partners, and is developed using open-source tools and industry standards, and also integrates to any backend system using APIs. The product is available directly through AVATAR Partners or certified resellers.

Was there a problem using AR on an object as large as an aircraft?

We overcame several challenges to make the solution commercially usable. Using the basic development tools and markers didn’t work – it caused significant drift, jitter and an inability to accurately track the object as the maintainer walked around the aircraft. AVATAR Partners was able to overcome all of these issues by developing algorithms to lock on target without any drift or jitter to the user. Our solution being hardware agnostic, we found the Microsoft Hololens and android tablet supported higher fidelity. Also, we used Mantis Vision 3D scanners to scan the aircraft, gaining an accurate 3D model so that we could use object tracking (instead of markers). This along with our programming algorithms provides the maintainer with absolute precision as they walk around the aircraft, regardless of the unit’s size (from 1:6 the model size, to full aircraft).

Presenter 4 : Carlos Ochoa, ONE digital consulting

Presentation Theme

Carlos presented XR platform for immersive training, operation and maintenance of industry plant services, eolic farms, which includes advanced reality technologies in 3d interactive environments (extended reality, 360º video and digital data integration), methodologies in a modular architecture (on/off line). Innvestion deploy an intelligent XR ecosystem with the specialized know-how to turn unstructured data into value-adding information, for specific subject when providing services such as preventive maintenance, security management or operational management. Simulation-based training, prefaced with traditional training methods on process fundamentals, is the most efficient and fastest way to train new employees and prepare them for their daily work providing huge added value and benefits.

ONE digital consulting has been working for more than 20 years in the eLearning and Training arena, and with our selected partners network in Europe, Saudi, India, Africa and Latam.

Webinar Questions for Carlos Ochoa

What hardware configurations are everyone on the panel currently using for their XR applications?

For a full INNVESTION experience, the user only needs a mobile device and VR glasses that fit the device. The training centre will need an internet connection to download different modules.

INNVESTION can be used in a single “low cost” VR environment based on Samsung Gear Mobile VR, through the most advanced VR Oculus Rift, HTC Vive configuration. The key issue of INNVESTION is data integration in one device. From reality to virtual reality or vice versa.

INNVESTION can be used in a multi window spheric environment, for multiuser training environments.

What are KPI’s?

The acronym KPI sounds for Key Performance Indicator. This is a general business term referring to any metric used in understanding how an organization is doing. While the term can be tossed around the business world ostentatiously or irrelevantly, the fundamental rationale derives from the simple concept that if you don’t know how you did in the past, you don’t know if you have improved in the future. Because every business has its own economic niche, customer acquisition models, geographic localities, production methods, etc., each business must define for themselves what makes them successful. Therefore, the “key” in KPI, should be a metric key to your enterprise. These indicators are as varied as your imagination, but a number of familiar indicators include monthly recurring revenue (MRR), cost to acquire a customer (CAC) and the term used in this webinar’s title, Return on Investment (ROI).

When you are looking to improve your ROI in your training strategy, you need to understand clearly the training savings metrics, saved commute hours, lifelong expense of your LMS solution, overall productivity and revenue increase, other factors specific to your business and training model.

In conclusion, we can see selected companies  transforming their business opportunities for the XR technology and adopt it regardless of cost and ‘clunkiness.’ Today we see leader enterprises utilizing XR for training, maintenance, engineering, and marketing purposes. These companies eventually pull everyone else in their direction as the industry caters to their operational needs and chases enterprise benefits.

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VR/AR Education Committe Highlights 2018

With 2018 almost coming to a close, we’d love to highlight some facts and figures from the year and share all the different activities released from Education Committee.

This is the story of one year team work, reflections, sharing, experiences, meetings, failures, celebrating little wins and, for sure, growth.

We have just complete our first guides, case studies, life webinars and best practices white paper.

Sometimes I feel we made a heroic effort and starting reaching out to more and more people from all over the VR/AR Educational Community. We probably sent hundreds of emails, made the social media accounts, and talked with hundreds of people in last 12 months.

Last but not least, millions of people will use VR/AR technology in Education in the next coming years. I believe we are in a good starting point, demonstrating that VR/AR Edu Committee can be a powerful platform for teachers, students and professionals to speak out and bring light to the Future of Education.

We hope this roundup inspires you to engage into the VR/AR Edu Community.

With a little “big” help from my friends !!! Julie, Kris, Molly, Pradeep, Mfon, Kevin, Josue, Mike…and many more !!!

You can dowload the complete document here:

Carlos J. Ochoa Fernández ©

Building artificial realities from Virtual experiences.

Disruptive Innovation for Smart Life Experiences

The image is use to deceive the senses and the intelligence by means of the illusion (Platón)

Let us imagining for a while we were “teleported” into the “Year 2050” …close your eyes and try to “imagine “how it looks like. Think about it for a minute. We can imagine a futuristic picture of the world, but all our pictures looks different. Our imagination is restrict by our education, knowledge, background, and social environment. However, our creativity has no limits.

Now, try to reimagine the past as it was many centuries ago…but with the knowledge from today…it could be something like a: “Virtual Ancient ” scenario. Think about the ancient society’s needs and demands, the citizen’s skills, without internet, smartphones, tablets, social media… This could be a script for a science fiction film…or a new storytelling for a Virtual reality immersive experience.

We are living in a new digital century, where immersion and technological dependence condition our lives and the society´s development. A “Smart society” in which the power of the image and the recreated illusion predominate. Through television, movies, mobile devices, smartphones, gadgets, video games and now the immersive reality, we are the permanent object and destination of messages through millions of images and subliminal sensations that ends in one way or another, setting guidelines, and trends. In short, a different way of understanding present, past and future reality and of interacting with it.

Throughout history, human has used the image as an element of communication. The creation of maps, communication routes, recreation of inventions and illusions … have served man as a tool for development and technological evolution “Leonardo Davinci”

The human condition can almost be summed up in the observation of things, whereas all experiences are from the past, all decisions are about the future. It is the great task of human knowledge to bridge this gap and to find those patterns in the past, which can be project it into the future as realistic images. Reimagining the future, therefore, is the key to all choice-oriented behavior.

Nowadays, Immersive technologies allow us to bring human to unimagined paradises, to reconstruct ancient spaces, worlds and invented realities. Allowing us to experiment and interact with them as if we were living in a figuratively imagined reality.

The development of communications infrastructures, smartphones and RV and AV devices at affordable prices are dramatically revolutionizing application sectors and user environments. Related to the world of culture, tourism and education, the opportunities for massive use of these technologies, is nowadays a reality. What contributes with high value to the society, developing accessible applications and contends that are available to global community.

 The opportunities that open up around us, for the promotion of cultural tourism or high benefit, and its dissemination and approach of knowledge at the global level are enormous:

To put in value the cultural heritage of the humanity through its recreation, recovery and conservation

  • Incorporation of RV and AR as tools for study, analysis, evaluation, reconstruction and visualization, bringing knowledge to the community in a simple and intuitive way
  • Create promotion centers, with tools that are easy to interpret, manage and accessible, accessing content of high value and in a fun way, where different communities and groups of knowledge can interact and contribute value and experiences in network. Edutainment
  • Promoting and disseminating tourism through the recreation of spaces and unique and spectacular environments, immersive and interactive spaces, combining past, present and future, as if we are in a time machine, as a call to on-site visits.

From its earliest origins, humanity has always sought to augment the story-telling experience, whether with arts expressions, music, theatrical performance, machinery or technological innovation. Virtual and Augmented Reality are simply the next step on this curve: a means of authentically bringing ideas to life and creating a realistic narrative that others are not only able to imagine, but can truly experience for themselves.

Cuenca.jpg

I have been working with Virtual Technologies for many years in different areas of knowledge and application, but specially focus on education, cultural heritage preservation and tourism promotion. It was fun, but tough to share nonacademic communities, because the cost of technology, infrastructures and broadband availability. Now everything is changing very fast due the smartphone ecosystem and the high-speed broadband infrastructures development.

Virtual Reality has long been moot as an educational tool. From SmartEducationLabs we are promoting different initiatives like: My Smart Destinations (Tourism Promotion & Education), My Smart Classroom (Education)…and many other. We already used the technology to create immersive learning ‘experiences’ for citizens, learning and knowledge communities, and we are exploring many life experiences about the possibilities of creating virtual disruptive ecosystems.

In addition to many others projects to come along this exciting year.

Carlos J. Ochoa Fernández ©

LIKES, AMIGOS Y SEGUIDORES. LA TRANSGRESIÓN DE LAS MAQUINAS.

 

News

Buenos días mundo, sonríe. Ese es mi mensaje matinal desde Twits & Shout cada día desde hace ya algún tiempo. Y hoy deje varias reflexiones sobre la mesa. Si, bastante transgresoras quizás, podría decir alguien. Pero yo las defino como de sentido común, o al menos como parte de mi común sentido. Y por ello, he decidido compartir estas reflexiones en voz alta con vosotr@s, ciudadanos del mundo.

Hoy, la reputación de un individuo se mide en “likes, amigos y seguidores”, aunque seas un don nadie, eso es lo que importa realmente. Y que poco me gusta esto, de que nada cueste nada. Un nuevo lenguaje, nada transgresor, de buen rollo me atrevería a decir, pero del que hay que conocer las reglas en profundidad para saber en qué terreno nos estamos moviendo y en qué dirección nos lleva.

Llevo una temporada un poco apartado de mi Blog y no es por olvido, sino quizás por falta de tiempo. De tiempo de calidad, para reflexionar, reposar ideas, relajar la diabólica marcha del día a día y dejar fluir contradicciones y reflexiones a media voz que me ayuden a volver a poner las cosas en su sitio. O dejarlas que se ordenen ellas solas y observar la evolución de los acontecimientos.

Las personas controladoras necesitan tener todo bajo control, cuando en realidad el control las ata a sus limitaciones y las impide ser más creativas, espontaneas e innovadoras. Pero eso sí, aparentemente “todo bajo control”. Incluso el caos, puede estar controlado, cuando se conocen los parámetros que lo desatan.

Shout: Hubo vida antes de Twitter, y de facebook…y de internet. Pero ya casi nadie lo recuerda…imaginas…? Follow Me 10 hours ago

Sigo con mis lecturas de estos últimos días y dejo para “mañana” la entrada del próximo blog sobre La Crisis Silenciosa y la necesidad de pensar distinto Ya!. Y recuerdo entre las últimas lecturas de artículos sobre emprendimiento, (hoy todo el mundo ha emprendido, emprende o está emprendiendo), l@s mensajeros y nuev@s mesias de las nuevas reglas, propuestas y mensajes, escupidos a gritos por los distintos canales de internet. Mensajes que si no fuera por la particularidad y capilaridad del medio, nadie se atrevería a decir ni tan siquiera a transcribir y mucho menos publicitar en todas direcciones. A quien le importa quién es tal o cual, que experiencia o formación avala su discurso mesiánico, si tiene 40.000 likes y 12k seguidores…Hoy, la reputación se mide en “likes, amigos y seguidores”, aunque seas un don nadie. Y que poco me gusta esto, de que nada cuesta nada.

Shout: “Reflexion 1”. Nos estamos convirtiendo en una sociedad TinyTwit?. Que vive de titulares y vacia de contenido? Follow Me 10 hours ago

Estamos entrando en un nuevo paradigma de lo banal, los titulares vacíos de contenido, la micro información en píldoras…¿a quien le importan los detalles?, el porqué, el para qué, el motivo y las consecuencias. Si para ello debo apretar una tecla +, y no hay más.

La micro-información condensa hasta el titular, de tal manera que resulta hasta difícil entender de qué va esto o aquello. Pero eso sí, lo re-tuiteo, porque me lo envía alguien con 12k de seguidores. Por cierto, no sé quién es…ni porque me eligió a mí para enviar sus mensajes y seguirme, si dudo que lo que escribo le interese para nada, además…entenderá mi idioma?, ¿acaso me importa?. Un seguidor más, mola, ah…no me ha costado nada.

Recuerdo mis años de juventud, en los que las salidas de excursión en autobús eran toda una fiesta. La pelea por elegir los sitios de atrás para poder montarla bien, cantar, charlar con los amigos, en fin disfrutar del viaje sin parar. El bullicio era casi atronador, no se paraba una décima de segundo. El que tenía un come discos o un cassette lo llevaba para mostrar a los colegas su música (eran los primeros dispositivos portátiles que manejábamos) y de esta manera discutíamos del último disco de los Stones, los Beatles, Leonard Cohen, Neil Young o Led Zeppelin. Por cierto, muchos de ellos comprados con sus portadas originales en el último viaje a Londres, porque aquí la censura los prohibía.

Shout. “Reflexión 2″: Cuanto es el impacto de los medios y la comunicacion en la vida real?. Un indicador para la sociedad de las perdonas?. Follow Me 10 hours ago

Hoy, cuando un grupo de jóvenes salen de viaje, apenas levantan la mirada del dispositivo móvil, ni tienen tiempo para mirar por la otra ventana, la de la vida real. Eso sí, comparten en su Chat cosas de lo más variopintas con sus otros amigos, mientras escuchan unos sonidos que no me atrevería a llamar música por el gran respeto que le tengo al arte. A su lado, otro compañero desafía a otro amigo a un juego virtual, en donde la sangre es tan real, que casi salpica la butaca del autobús. Curiosamente, estos dos chicos son los mejores amigos de la clase y no son capaces de compartir una sola palabra a lo largo de todo el viaje. Un viaje a ninguna parte, ya que cuando salen a hacer la visita organizada, deben cerrar la sesión y desconectar por unos minutos para aburrirse en compañía del resto de compañeros “viajeros silenciosos” y de los tutores, profesores o padres. Pérdida de tiempo, que al final tiene su recompensa, ¡¡¡ el viaje de vuelta será mucho más excitante ¡!!.

Shout. “Reflexión 3”: Cuanto es el impacto de los medios y del entorno digital en la vida real?. Es necesario elaborar indicadores para la sociedad de las perdonas? Follow Me 10 hours ago

Y a quién le importa donde estuvimos o que hicimos, si incluso nuestros padres son componente activo de la comunidad, exigiendo estar permanente informados a través del chat, y si en alguna llamada, Twit, Chat, Sms no nos contesta se crea estado de alerta inmediata. Lo importante es que lleguen bien…y no les pase nada. Pero si, les ha pasado mucho y a nadie parece importar.

La inmediatez, la necesidad de, la seguridad-inseguridad…permanentemente angustiados por…el control? ¿de qué y para qué?.

Shout. Reflexión. Una sociedad digital no es perfecta, pero requiere de una redefinicion global de Una Nueva Etica Digital Humanistica.Follow Me 10 hours ago

La sociedad que se está cimentando en este nuevo siglo es demasiado frágil. Se habla de generaciones perdidas, de estas ha habido muchas a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad y el tiempo casi las ha borrado. Una generación muy preparada, pero en que?. Acaso tener un título universitario y algún idioma es una buena preparación?. Depende para qué. Eso sí, se puede cumplimentar con muchos likes, amigos y seguidores.

En una reciente conversación con alumnos de la universidad de imagen, tuve la oportunidad de charlar sobre su visión del mundo actual e internet. Su gran paradigma. Allí está todo, al alcance de la mano y además es gratis, me comentaban. Porque claro, si hay una página en donde puedo descargar esto o aquello, es porque alguien lo dejó allí para que yo lo cogiera. Y si no lo cojo yo, otro más listo lo hace y lo tiene antes que yo. Pero a mí no me importa la fuente, el autor, el coste. Está y basta, no?. Y si está en internet, es para que yo lo coja – sino – que lo quiten.

Los valores, la moral, la ética…?. Eso no se estudia en la universidad – afirma. No?…insisto. O creo que no, será una maría y ese día no me interesó. Dos largas horas de conversación, en donde me limitaba a escuchar y provocar algunas “reflexiones”, que siempre llevaban a la misma senda.

Pero esa es la realidad de hoy. Y hay que escucharla, comprenderla y actuar conscientemente para evitar que sea una generación límite, y acabe con la herencia y modelo de sociedad solidaria que tantos años y esfuerzos ha costado conseguir. Y es que la información que les hacemos llegar es fragmentada, mediatizada, banal y nada interesante. Ellos buscan canales mas sencillos y rapidos…que llevan a consideraciones muy primarias y peligrosas.

Shout. “Reflexión 4”. En un futuro Tinytwit, la diferencia entre individuo digital y robot tiende a cero. Follow Me 10 hours ago

Las nuevas mega-tendencias auguran grandes avances en la robótica, impresoras 3d que podrán construir robots en nuestra propia casa, el internet de las cosas, en donde todo estará controlado…por alguien. La información y mensajes de comunicación se verá reducida a 50 caracteres, para que más?, además así se optimizan los flujos de datos. No se podrán mantener determinados servicios básicos, que curiosamente sólo pueden, de momento, ser atendidos por personas. Y las personas son caras, los robots no. Las fábricas reducirán en personal intensivo, ya que estarán completamente robotizadas, por lo que se podrán construir en cualquier lugar y en particular en donde las regulaciones y costes sean menores.

Los coches se guiarán solos, y los aviones, y los barcos y las comunicaciones…y las casas y las cosas…y?

Y pensar?, cada vez menos…que piensen ellos.

Y pensaron…las maquinas.

¡¡¡ Ahora TU, no dejes de andar !!!

Buenas noches y buena suerte.

Carlos J. Ochoa Fernández ©